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Actions to be Implemented
CHOICES Implementation Strategies
The CHOICES program is being implemented through four major strategies spread across three academic years. The program is designed to be both developmental in the introduction of increasingly difficult learning challenges and in that implementation strategies begin in the students' first year and conclude with a senior ethics course, Philosophy 400. The first-year learning experiences are designed to set expectations about Peace, help students clarify their values and understand how their values impact ethical decisions. Next they are introduced to key concepts related to ethical decision making and the Eight-Question Model for Ethical Decision Making which helps them reason about dilemmas where more than one possible appropriate answer exists. Students then apply this model to typical dilemmas faced by first-year students. During their junior year and in preparation for a professional internship in their field, students study cases relevant to their chosen major or career. A senior ethics course culminates the learning experience by challenging students to foresee possible ethical dilemmas in their careers and to analyze a personal, professional, societal, or global ethical dilemma. The same core values, eight-question model for ethical reasoning, and ethical reasoning grading rubric are used in each implementation strategy, enabling students to build skills and knowledge over the years. The implementation strategies and timetable for implementation are summarized in the table 6.1.
Table 6.1 Overview of CHOICES Implementation Strategies by QEP Year
2011-2012, Implementation Strategies 1 & 2
- July 2011: New Student Orientation, Pacer Camp (Implementation Strategy 1, part 1)
- August 2011: New Student Orientation, Welcome Week (Implementation Strategy 1, part 2)
- August - December 2011 and January - May 2012: Portfolio Seminar Series 100; 1 credit hour existing course required of all entering first year students; revamped to incorporate CHOICES (Implementation Strategy 2)
2012-2013, Implementation Strategies 1-3
- Continue strategies begun in 2011-2012
- August - December 2012 and January- May 2013: Portfolio Seminar Series 300, 1 credit hour new course required of all students (Implementation Strategy 3)
2013-2014, Implementation Strategies 1-4
- Continue strategies begun in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013
- August-December 2013 and January - May 2014: PHL 400, Senior Ethics Seminar, 3 credit hour existing course revamped to include CHOICES (Implementation Strategy 4)
- August-December 2013 and January - May 2014: ENG 400 Lab, Senior Writing Seminar, 1 credit hour new course; ENG 400 lab supports the PHL 400 course assignments related to CHOICES (Implementation Strategy 4)
NOTE: Most students will take PSS 300 in their junior year and PHL 400 and ENG 400 lab in their senior year, but students graduating in three years, education majors, and other students may occasionally need to take these courses sooner. Thus, they are being offered the second and third year of the CHOICES program, respectively,
CHOICES Implementation Strategy 1: New Student Orientation
Implementation Date. Orientation has existed at WPU for entering first-year students for over 30 years. Beginning in the summer of 2011, orientation programming included elements related to the CHOICES program.
Estimated Number of Students Participating: All first-year students, approximately 150 per year, who enter the traditional day program at William Peace University, participate in Orientation.
Orientation Purpose. Orientation serves as a student's introduction to college life. Orientation is divided into two parts, Pacer Camp and Welcome Week. Pacer Camp involves a two-day visit to campus in the summer to complete baseline measures (e.g., Values in Action) and register for classes. Welcome Week serves as a time for students to get acclimated, complete the BCSSE, learn expectations and build community with their peers. Baseline assessment and introductory programming related to the CHOICES program occur as outlined in the Topics and Activities section below.
Orientation Student Learning Outcomes Related to CHOICES. Students participating in Orientation identify the six core values related to ethical decision making, understand their results on the Values in Action (VIA) assessment, and participate in a discussion related to a case study about sharing of prescription drugs with a roommate.
Orientation Topics and Activities for Related to CHOICES. During Pacer Camp, students complete the Values in Action (VIA) as a baseline assessment for the CHOICES program. Results are immediately available to students. The Student Services Staff then lead an interactive activity "That's Me" where students get to know each other by selectively sharing elements of their VIA results and reflect about what their VIA results mean. WPU's six core values related to the CHOICES program are introduced during this discussion. During Welcome Week in August, students participate in the activities described below.
- Complete the Beginning College Student Survey of Engagement (BCSSE)
- Watch the movie School Ties in preparation for a discussion about ethical dilemmas in PSS 100
- Complete a written analysis of the baseline case study "Sharing Prescription Drugs" to assess ethical reasoning. After students complete their written assessment, Student Services staff and Peer Mentors lead the students in a discussion of the case.
Baseline ethical case study: Sharing Prescription Drugs. Your roommate, Chris, has been struggling to do well in classes. Chris told you she has ADHD but when you asked what medicine she took, she indicated that although she was diagnosed with ADHD, her parents never wanted her to take medication. So, she never got the prescription filled. She told you she struggled throughout high school with her ability to concentrate and now that she's in college, she's having even more trouble. Chris has a big test coming up and she's having trouble focusing on studying. She's been out partying a lot and is very tired and needs to study very hard for next 24 hours. She promises you that if you will just share some of your Ritalin with her (you have ADHD), she'll go to the doctor and get her own prescription. You get along great with Chris and want her to stay in school. Also, she can have a bit of a temper and you don't want to make her mad at you. Should you give her Ritalin for the next 24 hours?
CHOICES Implementation Plan for Orientation. All incoming students are required to participate in new student orientation at WPU. The Assistant Dean for Campus Life, who was a member of the QEP Team, developed and led the activities mentioned above. All members of the Student and Academic Services Staff and all Peer Mentors received training in the six core values and in the Eight-Question Model of Ethical Decision Making during the summer of 2011. (See the last section in this chapter for more details related to training.)
CHOICES Implementation Strategy 2: Portfolio Seminar Series 100 (PSS 100)
Implementation Date: A required first-year seminar class has been offered at Peace since 1998. Beginning in the fall of 2011 this course incorporated elements of the CHOICES program.
Estimated Number of Students Participating: All entering first-year students, approximately 150 per year, complete PSS 100.
Purpose. PSS 100 serves as the students' introduction to college life and to expectations for academic work . PSS 100 courses have a topical, discipline-oriented focus and are taught by faculty from a variety of disciplines. Faculty members are encouraged to pick a topic that can be related to ethical decision making. Example topics for the fall of 2011 include Animal Rights and Ethical Dilemmas of Religious Leaders. In terms of the CHOICES program, PSS 100 assignments help students to a) understand key concepts that underlie any discussion of ethical decision making, b) explore their current values and c) practice the steps of ethical decision making using scenarios relevant to first-year college students. See Appendix C for a sample syllabus.
CHOICES Student Learning Outcomes for PSS 100. First-year students will
- Identify concepts relevant to ethical decision making.
- Understand their current values and how their values direct behavior.
- Identify Peace's six core values.
- Identify the steps associated with making ethical decisions.
- Use the Eight-Question Model for Ethical Decision Making to examine issues relevant to first-year college students.
CHOICES Topics and Learning Activities for PSS 100. There are four major topics and associated learning activities related to the CHOICES program that occur in PSS100.
- Completion of the CLA early in the semester.
- Instruction in concepts and values related to ethical decision making. A modified version of Scruples is used to help students master a common language that will be used throughout the four years of the CHOICES program and to learn how the six core values relate to ethical decision making. See Table 5. 1 and 5.2 for a list of these key terms and the core values.
- The Eight-Question Model of Ethical Decision Making is taught using a scene from the School Ties movie watched during Orientation. Faculty guide discussion of the ethical dilemmas apparent in the movie, teaching the Eight-Question Model of Ethical Decision Making (see Table 5.3) as a tool to analyze ethical dilemmas.
- Students write a paper analyzing the required summer reading, which in 2011 is Some We Love, Some We Hate, Some We Eat. In this paper, students are asked to identify values that drive decision-making regarding the care and treatment of animals.
- Case studies relevant to first-year students give students the opportunity to practice the Eight-Question Model of Ethical Decision Making.
Case Study # 1: "I Can't Talk to the Professor"
(Complaining about something a faculty member did or said to the Provost without speaking to the faculty member; asking the Provost to take action against the faculty)
Case Study #2: "Beach Trip"
(Underage drinking and independence from parents)
Case Study #3: "I Like this Song"
(Using Facebook to cyber-bully a friend who has upset you)
All case studies are discussed in class, with faculty guiding discussion to help students evaluate their reasoning, the values that drive their thinking, and the consequences of the resulting choices. An adapted version of the ethical reasoning rubric developed by American Association of Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) is used to provide students feedback. (See Appendix D.) The final case study is used for summative assessment of the first year of the CHOICES program. Appendix C provides an example syllabus for PSS 100.
CHOICES Implementation Plan for PSS 100. Peace has been requiring a first-year experience course for over 10 years. We implemented the revised first-year experience course, PSS 100, to incorporate CHOICES in the fall of 2011. All incoming first-year students are required to register for a PSS 100 section in the fall semester; students who enter in January will complete the course in the spring semester. PSS 100 classes, taught by faculty and qualified staff, are focused on a topic relevant to the instructor's discipline or interests. All topics are approved by the Dean for Academic and Student Services. Instructors teaching PSS 100 also agree to the following:
- Attend professional development seminars designed to teach faculty the Eight-Question Model of Ethical Decision Making, how to create ethical case studies, how to grade case studies using the adapted AAC&U rubric, and how to conduct discussions about values and the language of ethical decision making. In May of 2011 we held the first professional development session for instructors scheduled to teach PSS 100 during the fall 2011 semester. (See the last section of this chapter for more details related to professional development.)
- Conduct all of the exercises and assign all requirements related to implementation of the QEP and weight each assignment to be at least 20% of the final grade in PSS 100.
CHOICES Implementation Strategy 3: Portfolio Seminar Series 300 (PSS 300)
Implementation Date: Fall 2012
Estimated Number of Students Participating: All juniors (including transfers), approximately 125 per year
Purpose of PSS 300. Portfolio Seminar Series 300 (PSS 300) is part of a four-year series designed to develop students' academic and career preparedness. PSS 300: Workplace Connections is the third course in the sequence and the last course students take before enrolling in the required internship course. Ethical decision making related to professional dilemmas will be a topic of the course.
CHOICES Student Learning Outcomes for PSS 300. The assignments related to the CHOICES program will help students to apply the Eight Question Ethical Decision Making Model to arrive at decisions related to ethical dilemmas in the work place and to identify the values that drove those decisions.
Topics and Learning Activities for PSS 300. All PSS 300 classes will include:
- a review of WPU's 6 core values and how they relate to workplace decisions. The instructor will review the 6 values the students were introduced to in PSS 100: responsibility, caring, fairness, honesty, open-mindedness, and citizenship. The instructor will discuss the relevance of these values in a work setting and provide mission statements from various organizations that incorporate these values.
- a review of the Eight-Question Ethical Decision-Making Model presented in PSS 100.
- assignments (case study and professional interview) related to making ethical decisions as described below.
Case Study. The instructor will provide students with three possible cases -- Country Club Manager, Start Up Software Firm, or The Request -- developed by the Center for the Study of Ethics at Utah Valley University (http://www.uvu.edu/ethics/other/ethicscasestudies/casestudies.html). Small groups of students will discuss the case and then present their case analysis to the class. Students not analyzing that particular case will be asked to answer the following questions:
- What principles presented by the group in their analysis are similar to your view on the topic?
- What conclusions reached by the group were similar to and different from how you would have chosen to handle the situation? Explain which approach better fits the Eight-Question Model for Ethical Decision Making.
Professional Interview. Students will interview a professional who has been in the workplace 10 years or more, holds a supervisory or director level position in a profit or nonprofit organization, and has experience making ethical decisions in his or her profession. Students will interview the professionals and ask about ethical decisions they have had to make over the course of their career. The student and professional will choose one example and using the Ethical Decision Making Model, the student will ask the professional the questions from the model. Students will write a 3 to 5 page paper that includes the professional's response to the eight questions and the student's reflection about the interview as follows:
- What values or principles did you hear the professional refer to that are similar to your view on the topic?
- What conclusions did the professional reach that are similar to and different from how you would have handled the situation? Explain why you would have handled the issue the same or differently using the Eight-Question Model of Ethical Decision Making to justify your approach.
CHOICES Implementation Plan for PSS 300. Implementation for PSS 300 will occur in 2012-2013. All instructors teaching PSS 300 will receive professional development related to WPU's core values, the Eight-Question Ethical Decision Making Model, and how to grade ethical decision-making assignments. (See the last section of this chapter for specific training details.) PSS 300 is a required course for all first-year and transfer students entering WPU in the fall of 2011. Sections will be offered every fall and spring semester beginning in the fall of 2012.
CHOICES Implementation Strategy 4: Philosophy 400, Senior Interdisciplinary Ethics Seminar and ENG 400-L: Senior Writing Lab
Implementation Date: PHL 400 has been a requirement since 1995. Beginning in the fall of 2013, PHL 400 will be revamped to incorporate learning activities related to the CHOICES program and it will include a required writing lab, ENG 400-L.
Estimated Number of Students Participating: All seniors, approximately 120 per year, complete the PHL 400 and ENG 400-L courses.
Purpose. The purpose of the existing PHL 400 course is to provide students grounding in ethical theories and decision making that can be applied to personal, professional, societal, or global scenarios. Students from all majors come together in this interdisciplinary course to apply ethical decision-making processes and to build on their reasoning orally and in writing. A writing lab, ENG 400-L, will be required for all students entering in the fall of 2011 or after; it provides students support in accomplishing the learning goals of PHL 400.
CHOICES Student Learning Outcomes for PHL 400 and ENG 400-L. Related to the CHOICES program, students will apply the eight question ethical decision-making model to examine career and societal ethical dilemmas and identify how the core values influence ethical decisions.
CHOICES Topics and Strategies for PHL 400 and ENG 400-L. Two assignments related to the CHOICES program will be completed in PHL 400 and ENG 400-L.
- Professional Case Study: Students will create a case in which a person in their anticipated career has to make a moral choice or resolve an ethical dilemma. Students will be required to submit a written analysis of the case using the Eight-Question Ethical Decision-Making Model and identifying the relevant values. The instructor in the lab section (ENG 400-L) will work with students to refine their ideas and make sure the student is applying the Eight-Question Model. After submitting the papers, students will explain their case analysis and conclusions to classmates in PHL 400. Students will then respond to class questions about the case or possible objections to their arguments and conclusions.
- Societal Issue Case Study: Students will be presented with a case in which a person has to make an important choice when faced with a societal or global ethical dilemma. In the paper, students will apply the Eight-Question Ethical Decision-Making Model. This paper will be graded using the rubric used throughout the CHOICES program and will serve as the final summative assessment for CHOICES.
CHOICES Implementation Plan for PHL 400 and ENG 400-L. All students at William Peace University are required to take PHL 400 and ENG 400-L in their senior year. A philosophy instructor, who also served as a member of the QEP Team, will teach PHL 400 and English faculty will teach ENG 400-L. The PHL 400 faculty member will help lead the training for the ENG 400-L instructors. Details about training are included in the last section of this chapter.
CHOICES Infusion and Enhancement Opportunities
In addition to the required programming that supports CHOICES, there are ongoing University programs or activities that support the learning goals of the CHOICES program. These activities occur throughout the academic year and provide all students numerous opportunities to have their learning about ethical decision making enhanced and reinforced. Because of the number and visibility of so many of these activities, we feel confident that second-year students - the only year students do not participate in a required CHOICES program element - have ample opportunity to learn more about values and ethical decision making. Faculty, staff and student leaders for these programs receive CHOICES training and thus can integrate and infuse elements of the CHOICES program into their existing programs. Connecting ongoing activities to the CHOICES program ensures the type of repetition and generalization necessary to achieve effective learning. Examples of these activities include:
- Feature articles in the Peace Times: Our campus newspaper, Peace Times, began featuring students and how they handle ethical decisions in the spring of 2011. These articles will continue throughout 2011-2012.
- Summer reading speaker: Each fall, the author of the first-year student required summer reading comes to campus for a lecture open to all members of the William Peace University campus community. For the duration of the CHOICES program we will pick a book that allows us to explore values and ethical dilemmas.
- Student Showcase (an annual event that celebrates student learning and scholarship): This past spring the QEP Team offered two sessions related to ethical decision making including an Ethics Bowl and an Ethics Case Study competition. Both of these sessions will be offered every year throughout the duration of the QEP.
- Elective coursework: Case studies related to ethical dilemmas in the discipline will be included in courses throughout the curriculum. Faculty will be offered professional development opportunities (see next section) for how to use the case study method to teach ethical decision making.
- Professional Code of Ethics: Some majors, such as Communication and Psychology, regularly teach disciplinary ethics in required courses such as PSY 300, Research Methods, and in the Communication Senior Seminar Course.
- Chapel Series on Ethical Decision Making: The entire campus community is invited to attend a weekly, non-denominational Chapel service. The theme for the fall 2011 series will be ethical decision making.
In addition, other activities already occur on campus each year that reflect the six core values of the CHOICES program. In the fall of 2011, we began to emphasize each of the six core values as part of these programs.
- August - honesty: Students sign the campus Honor Code and learn about plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty in classes.
- September and October - fairness: Each year Peace holds an event to recognize the founding of our nation on Constitution Day; in addition, students attend programming related to living equitably with roommates.
- November and December - caring: Each year we hold a Thanksgiving food drive, donate presents to an Angel Tree for the holidays, and participate in the Salvation Army Clothing Collection.
- January - open-mindedness: Each year we hold a celebration to honor Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and take a reflective look at the civil rights movement.
- February and March - responsibility: In past years Peace has offered alternative spring break programming (e.g., mission trips) and Safe Spring Break programming for students traveling to vacation destinations.
- April - citizenship: Students demonstrate citizenship each year by participating in Student Showcase and voting in student elections.
Faculty and Staff Participation in the CHOICES Program
Approximately 35% of our full-time faculty members are projected to be involved in required elements of the CHOICES program through teaching PSS 100, PHL 400 or ENG 400 lab. In addition, most of the Student and Academic Services Staff is involved in CHOICES programming either through a planning, training, teaching or implementation role including the Dean of Student and Academic Services, Assistant Dean for Campus Life, the Director of Student Activities, the Director of Career Services and the Assistant Director of Career Services. An additional three full-time or part-time staff members are involved in planning, training or delivering required elements of the CHOICES program including the Provost, Assistant Dean of Academic Affairs and Instruction, and Director of Institutional Research. Except for librarians, coaches and the Registrar's Office, all staff who report to the Provost are directly involved in planning, training or implementing the CHOICES program.
All full-time faculty were invited during the spring of 2011 to teach a PSS 100 section for the fall of 2011. Faculty members were given information about the revamped first year course (previously labeled ADV 100) which is now called Portfolio Seminar Series 100. Faculty members were encouraged to pick a topic for PSS 100 that could be easily related to ethical decision making and the exploration of values. Faculty members who chose to teach PSS 100 were assigned teaching load credit of 1.5 hours for each section of PSS 100. One of these full-time faculty members teaching PSS 100 will serve on the CHOICES Implementation Team. Two-thirds of the PSS 100 sections are being taught by full-time faculty and one third by Academic Affairs staff including the Provost and the Dean for Academic and Student Services.
Faculty will lead all elements of the CHOICES program related to the implementation of PHL 400 and ENG 400 lab. One full-time faculty member teaches PHL 400 and four full-time English faculty rotate teaching the ENG 400 lab based on interest and other load requirements.
As noted above, two full-time staff members are teaching PSS 100. Two staff members from Student Services, the Assistant Dean for Campus Life and the Director of Student Activities, lead all Orientation activities related to the CHOICES program. The Assistant Dean for Campus Life served on the QEP Planning Team and now serves as a member of CHOICES Implementation Team. Two additional staff members, the Director of Career Services and the Assistant Director of Career Services, have responsibility for teaching all sections of PSS 300: Workplace Connections. These staff members both hold master's degrees and are qualified to teach this course.
All full-time and part-time faculty and all staff are encouraged to participate in the CHOICES program via the activities outlined in the section above titled CHOICES Infusion and Enhancement Strategies and many do so in one of the ways outlined in that section. We anticipate an additional 25% of full-time faculty (beyond those teaching PSS 100, PHL 400, or ENG 400 lab) will voluntarily include ethical case study analysis in their courses after participating in the professional development opportunities described in the next section, resulting in a total of 60% of full-time faculty participating in the CHOICES program through direct instruction.
All faculty and staff are kept informed about the CHOICES program via campus communication outlets such as In Touch and by updates from the Provost (at Faculty Assembly) or the President (Campus Forums). Four meetings were scheduled between July and October of 2011 to inform all faculty and staff about the CHOICES program and other aspects of reaccreditation.
Training for Leaders of Required CHOICES Implementation Strategies
Faculty, staff and student leaders helping to implement the four required elements of the CHOICES program (Orientation, PSS 100, PSS 300, and PHL 400/ENG 400-L) have participated in required training sessions or will do so before their program element is implemented. Training occurs in a 2 to 4 hour workshop and is led by the Assistant Dean of Academic Affairs and Instruction (ADAAI) who also serves CHOICES Implementation Chair. The ADAAI, who also served as the QEP Team Co-chair, is assisted in training by the Director of Institutional Research who served as the QEP Team Chair and is now on the CHOICES Implementation Team. One of the faculty representatives to the QEP Team, who also serves as the PHL 400 instructor, assists with the parts of training related to teaching the Eight-Question Model for Ethical Decision Making. The training for faculty, staff and students involved in CHOICES implementation includes:
- Overview of the CHOICES program
- Student Learning Outcomes for CHOICES
- Introduction to the ethical decision-making concepts (See Table 5.1) core values (See Table 5.2) and the Eight-Question Model for Ethical Decision Making (See Table 5.3). Handouts of each of these tables are provided to all students, faculty and staff being trained.
- A brief overview of best practices related to teaching ethical decision making
- Instructions for how to complete the learning activities associated with that implementation strategy
- Instruction and practice using the Ethical Decision-Making Grading Rubric (this activity is not included in the Orientation Training)
Training for the leaders of each implementation strategy occurs just before that element of the CHOICES program is implemented. Thus, orientation leaders and faculty members teaching PSS 100 were trained during the summer of 2011 in separate workshops. PSS 300 faculty will be trained in May of 2012 prior to the August 2012 launch of PSS 300. ENG 400 lab instructors will be trained in May of 2013 prior to the launch of this implementation strategy in August of 2013. The PHL 400 instructor was a member of the QEP Team and assists with all training.
Because all training is conducted by faculty and staff who served on the QEP Team or currently serve on the CHOCIES Implementation Team, there are no training costs noted in the budget except for costs associated with development of training materials and the in-kind use of time.
Professional Development for Faculty and Staff Related to CHOICES
Professional development sessions related to CHOICES began in August of 2011 and will be offered again in October 2011 and May 2012. Beginning with the 2012-2013 academic year professional development workshops will be offered each May and August for interested faculty and staff. Professional development workshops range from 1-2 hours and are focused on one of the three topics below:
- Overview of the CHOICES program including student learning outcomes, core values, ethical decision-making concepts, and the Eight-Question Model used for making ethical decisions.
- Instruction in the case study method of teaching ethical decision making including websites where case studies appropriate for college students can be found; this professional development session also teaches faculty and staff the Eight-Question Model for making ethical decisions.
- Instruction in how to use the ethical decision-making grading rubric (See Appendix D). Faculty and staff are given student case study analysis papers to evaluate and practice applying the rubric. Faculty and staff wishing to become graders for CHOICES assessment must achieve 80% reliability with either the Assistant Dean of Academic Affairs and Instruction or the Director of Institutional Research, the two designated graders for case study assessment.
All professional development sessions will be led by the Assistant Dean of Academic Affairs and Instruction, the Director of Institutional Research, and the PHL 400 faculty member; thus, no funding is needed for external trainers. There is money allocated in the CHOICES budget which will allow the Assistant Dean of Academic Affairs and Instruction and CHOICES Lead Implementer to attend conferences related to our CHOICES topic.
Building CHOICES Support
Information about the CHOICES program has been and will continue to be shared in numerous ways, allowing faculty and staff to gain knowledge about the program and building excitement about the possible student learning outcomes. In addition to regular updates provided at Faculty Assembly, the QEP Chair sent summary emails to the campus community in AY 2009-2010 and AY 2010-2011. Additional information sharing and marketing activities planned and completed include:
- Feature articles in the Peace Times about ethical decision making - fall 2010, spring 2011, fall 2011
- CHOICES logo cups distributed at Student Showcase - April 14, 2011
- CHOICES document placed on WPU website - August 2011
- CHOICES t-shirts distributed at Orientation - August 2011
- CHOICES jump drive with content related to ethical decision making distributed to entering first-year students - August 2011
- CHOICES bookmarks - Fall 2011
- CHOICES posters and table displays